Monday, September 30, 2019

Compare and Contrast Pardoner’s Tale and Wife of Bath

Amanda Padron November 19, 2012 Period 2 The Canterbury Tales Essay Geoffery Chaucer wrote twenty-four tales but the most noticeable of these twenty-four tales are â€Å"The Pardoners Tale† and â€Å"The Wife Of Baths Tale†. The Wife of Bath's Tale† is the more likely candidate to win against â€Å"The Pardoner's Tale† in the morality side. The reason her tale has morality is the goodness of the poor and broken. Once her story is near its end and the knight, her protagonist, is face to face with the old woman, the antagonist, the wife's message becomes clear.The very first of her ideas is that gentleness, the most prized quality by the upper class, does not come from the class that someone is born into but rather their choices. In â€Å"The Pardoner's Tale† the pardoner sells the church's pardons to people who have sinned and seek absolution. He also preaches against sins, mostly avarice. Ironically, in the prologue to his tale, he admits being guilt y of that sin and is quite proud of it. His tale is also about greed; in it, death takes three greedy men to their early graves. The more you compare and contrast them the more you realize they have in common.Both tales scam people out of their money and status, and they both do this through appealing to others guilt. The wife of bath tells her first few husbands how badly they treated her when they were â€Å"drunk†. While the pardoner gives sermons on how the root of all evil is desire, and since desire is an emotion everyone feels, everyone feels guilty of his allegations. The pardoner never really tried to validate his actions. He did give a short little speech in which he basically said that other people were scamming other people so why not him but that was it.The wife of bath on the other hand gave a huge speech on why what she did was acceptable. So the wife of bath must have felt a little guilt because she felt like she had to defend her actions. Then the wife of bat h wins on the fact that deep down she seems to be searching for something real. The pardoner may want something like that as well but he does not prove or show that he does. We can clearly see that the Pardoner and the Wife of Bath both present a criticism of the church of the time.The Pardoner wasn’t exactly a respected position because they would guilt you into buying a artifact from them to pardon your sins. Basically the criticism here is the whole idea of pedaling fake relics and convincing sinners to buy the fake relics. The Wife of Bath presents an idea that women of the world should have the same rights, powers, and privileges as men, which was a bad idea to do back then. The way frame narrative is used here is so that the characters and the narrator is talking about isn’t directly Chaucer’s ideas.The second thing they have in common is that they both have no problem with their way of thinking. Some people have ideas and things they want to express but t hey do not want to for fear. In conclusion, every one has their own view point on both tales and have different opinions. My opinion is that The Wife of Bath has a better story to tell as well as a better moral story at the end since she admits to her faults and accepts responsibility. The pardoner is self fish and rude in my eyes and also in a lot of people’s eyes.

Sunday, September 29, 2019

Concept of Long Term Care

The New York Times has reported that eating fish in a regular diet has more benefits. The article explains that the Harvard Women’s Health study says people that eat fish once a week had a 42 percent less likelihood to develop macular degeneration that was age related than people that ate fish less than once a month. Macular degeneration is an inflammatory disease and fish has the omega 3 fatty acid that reduces the inflammation (Rabin, 2011). The study was based on 39,876 women that were in their mid-life which was 99 percent of these women participating. The participants were handed a questionnaire in 1993 that had a detailed food frequency to fill out. These questionnaires needed these women to list an average of consumption over the past year of different foods with a specific portion size. These foods that needed to be listed were how much of tuna fish, mackerel, salmon, sardines, bluefish, and swordfish were eaten. These women were told to record how much, on an average, was eaten over this past year. The study took 10 years to follow up and only 235 of the 39,876 people developed macular degeneration. This is an eye disease that is progressive and is the leading cause of irreversible vision loss in the elderly population (Rabin, 2011). The study findings were that the intakes of w-3 and w-6 fatty acids along with other dietary fats had been adjusted for the total of the energy intake using the residual methods. The intakes were categorized into tertiles that enhanced the stability estimates. The categories were an overall basis on the distribution of nutrients of all the women’s intakes. Tertiles were also adjusted for trans-unsaturated fat, saturated fat, and monounsaturated fat. sided P-values and 95 percent of CI’s were also calculated. Also performed were the tests of interaction to evaluate the null hypothesis. These tests were of no differences in the association of the w-3 and the w-6 fatty acids (Rabin, 2011). The women that reported eating one or more servings of fish a week had a 42 percent less chance of developing macular degeneration than the women that ate less once a month per serving of fish. The most benefits that were found were by eating dark meat fish and canned tuna. These studies are prone to have a measurement of error which tends to have an underestimate in any association of diet with the risks of AMD. Any changes of the dietary intakes would likely be nondifferential to the AMD end point and would have a true association. The end point was based primarily on the self report of the participants. The data was based on a large population of many different women that had no prior diagnosis of any AMD’s and that regular intake of EPA, DHA, and fish had a significant reduction of risk of AMD. This appears to be the strongest evidence that support the role of the w-3 fatty acids and reduced the number of people that had advanced AMD (Rabin, 2011). The findings in this article were appropriate in the findings that eating fish once a week reduced the risk of the development of macular degeneration and slowed the progression of some that had early signs of the disease. The hypothesis along with the P-value that was used played a big part in determining the out come of this study. In conclusion, this study has proven that eating fish once a week can and will help to prevent the eye disease Macular Degeneration (Rabin, 2011).

Saturday, September 28, 2019

Qualifications to become an accountant in the UK Case Study

Qualifications to become an accountant in the UK - Case Study Example The accounting sector has revolutionised from what it was some decades ago. With the introduction of the internet and the popularisation of e-commerce, there is a need to incorporate some versatility in this profession. Gone are the days when accounting was thought to be something that involved numbers only. These days, accountants are required to be more analytical than technical. (British Expats, 2007)The Institute of Chartered Accountants in England & Wales (ICAEW) is the largest accountancy body in Europe. It is seen as a body that yields financial qualifications of a reputable level. The ICAEW has about one hundred and twenty seven thousand members where twenty [percent of these members happen work and live ion regions falling outside the United Kingdom. This qualification is really relevant because it equips individuals with the ability to work in diverse areas of business. (ACCA, 2008)In order to enrol for an ICAEW qualification, a student needs to be above eighteen years of a ge. On top of this, they are required to have passes in GCSE and A-level. For the latter case, they should have two of those passes but for the former, they are required to have passes in 3 subjects. This must include English and mathematics. However, there may be exceptions for this, if a student has enrolled for AAT-ACA. This is a fast track course that facilitates students who plan on enrolling for ICAEW qualifications. Sometimes some international students may not have some of the above named requirements but if they have completed bachelor degrees then they may be allowed to join. Besides this, the main exemptions that exist for these particular qualifications are those students who have passed CIMA exams, ACCA finalists. This is something that has to be confirmed from the ICAEW centre. Also, candidates who have passed some of the exams in the professional stage of the qualifications may obtain credits for this. For the points required to enter this accounting qualification; ca ndidates must have a minimum of two hundred and twenty tariff points in UCAS or in general, they can have eighteen points. Besides this, for those entering using the avenue of degrees, the requirement is that candidates should have a first degree. Exams are normally conducted in two stages. The first is called the professional stage. In this stage, individuals are required to do twelve exams. These exams are normally conducted through computers and on average most of them last for one and a half hours. Candidates are expected to do application based modules. Examples of subjects covered in this area of study include; taxation, financial reporting, business management, business finance, audit assurance and accounting. These are subjects that are normally based on company law,. These are supposed to be six in number and normally take up about two and a half hours on average. The second stage of the exams is called the advanced stage. In this latter case, candidates are required to do two exams and are also expected to do one case study. Some of the topics to be taken in this stage include;

Friday, September 27, 2019

A Critical Analysis of Hemingway's A Clean, Well-lighted Place Essay

A Critical Analysis of Hemingway's A Clean, Well-lighted Place - Essay Example Ernest Hemingway’s 1954 Nobel Prize winner â€Å"A Clean, Well-lighted Place† effectively illustrates human beings’ different answers of the mostly asked question: â€Å"What is the meaning of life?† From toddlerhood to late adulthood, as people grow mature, their response to this question gets influenced with their life’s experiences whether good or bad. They either turn out to be hopeful amidst life adversities or become cynical of life’s real meaning. In a much closer look, Hemingway’s work undoubtedly reflects his own experiences (Ernest Hemingway). He himself has committed suicide in the year 1961(Redouane, Abouddahab, 2). And as a result, most critical analyses of his works become mostly biographical in nature. Hemingway’s work undoubtedly reflects a considerable amount of his life’s experiences as a soldier, writer, and reporter. It can be also noted that most of the criticism of Hemingway’s works is ideolog ically based and is greatly influenced by the accumulated facts about his life and work. His works usually present male personas whose characters evolve around the themes on â€Å"losing hope and faith† (Ernest Hemingway). This short story â€Å"A Clean, Well-lighted Place† somehow progresses on the same theme: of losing hope and faith to live, and of nursing the moments of despair to finding that something that will push one to continue living. These themes were well illustrated by three characters of different walks of life, three people who see life in different perspectives: the young waiter, the old waiter and the old-drunk man. They have different stories to tell and only in the clean, well-lighted cafe that their mind-sets get exposed to the readers’ critical scrutiny. In Erickson’s Psychosocial Theory, he pointed out that in each stage of a person’s life one experiences psychosocial crisis represented by two opposing dispositions also terme d by Erickson as â€Å"contrary dispositions†. If one can successfully manage each stage, he/she can get through the rest of the stages. On the other hand, If one failed, he may develop â€Å"reduced ability to complete further stages† (Saul McLeod). In relation to this, the young waiter represents those in the young adulthood stage, the sixth stage of Erickson’s Psychosocial Theory of Human Development, who views life with much positivity and idealism while the old-drunk man and the old waiter who sympathizes with the former represent those in the late adulthood stage, the last stage of Erickson’s Psychosocial Theory. They are the ones who are caught between developing ego integrity and wallowing up the feeling of despair. The story, set in a clean, well-lighted cafe somewhere in Spain, opens with an old man drinking brandy and sitting on his favourite spot in the cafe, â€Å"in the shadow of the leaves of the tree made against the electric light† . The two waiters in the cafe were talking about the old-drunk man as he drowns himself with his liquor. Their conversation wound up with the latter’s attempted suicide to the significance of a clean, well-lighted cafe of which young waiter finds no difference with other bars and bodegas. The young waiter who seems oblivious of the old-drunk man’s personal issues finds the attempt ridiculous because for him the latter â€Å"has plenty of money† and that there’s no reason why should the old man try to end his life. On one hand, the old waiter feels what the old man was exactly feeling as he understands what â€Å"it† feels like. He confesses that, he himself needs a clean, well-lighted place once in a while. As the story progresses, the young and old waiter, both representations of two different generations, demonstrate the different worldviews

Thursday, September 26, 2019

Colonization and its impact on historical geography of north america Essay

Colonization and its impact on historical geography of north america - Essay Example American colonies also moved in and resolved on sharing the fishery with France, and after the cross-island railroad was built in the 1800’s, fishing had become the only industry in Newfoundland. Fishery impacted the island in many ways: economically, geographically, on the population, industry sector, transport and communication as well as its education sector during this historical time. The geography and ecosystem of Newfoundland has been credited to be a major contributor in the prosperity of fishery. Its climatic conditions had great impact on the marine ecosystem, especially around its central Grand Bank in comparison to other areas, such as the northeast Atlantic. The southward extension of the Island is covered with the Labrador currents that are responsible for the transportation of cold water in the southward direction from the Hudson Bay, Davis Strait and the Canadian Archipelago. The cold water offer conducive fishery conditions in these areas. The median extents s outherly of the sea ice towards the Grand bank with the temperatures at the water bottom falling bellow 0 degrees Celsius for most of the period. The cold conditions that extent southerly are implicated by the frequent polar cod presence along the Newfoundland coast. The fishery activity in the Newfoundland became so dominant that it impacted the geographical considitions of the Island in many adverse ways. This paper is going to look at how European fishery impacted the ecosystem, population and demography and climate of Newfoundland. Road Map 1. Impact on Ecosystem 2. Impact on Climate 3. Population and Demography 4. Conclusion Impact on Ecosystem Before the European interest in the Island, the ecosystem of Canada in general was characterized by very few species, and this was the case at Newfoundland. Among these few species, very few of them were in high abundance. The most dominant fish species included capelin and lance mostly found in the area around the Grand Bank plateau and the polar cod around the north (Lear 50). Herring species was only found in the adjacent waters or in some cases in the bays. The named species fed mostly on crustaceans and calanoid copepods. The fishery activities led to the discovery of more species that later became dominant and important in the Island. Such species include: Greenland halibut, Atlantic code and American plaice. Northern shrimp and snow crab were also later discovered and dominated benthic crustaceans (Lear 62). These species were not enough, considering fishery had turn out to be the main activity on the Island. This called for the need for species in the fishery changing the historical ecosystem of the area. The main introductions included hooded seals and harp seals that come from the north, but this was seasonal. The other species to be introduced were the whales that came into the Island from the south. This species was also seasonal. The most important species that were not naturally found in the Island in clude minke, humpback, pilot whales, fin, sei and sperm (NAFO 333). In addition to the fish species, there were other immigrants that came to the Island following the fishery activity, and they include: squid with short fins, bluefin tuna, mackerel and birds like sooty shearwater and greater shear water (NAFO 333). Overfishing was observed to have great impact on the ecosystem

Wednesday, September 25, 2019

Communism in North Korea Compared with Russia Essay

Communism in North Korea Compared with Russia - Essay Example It seems that for many practical purposes, the evolution of the socialist state in Russia made the Russian Socialist or Communist State assume the characteristics of a capitalist or free market or competitive market state. It is highly that capitalism the competitive market system was restored in Russia. III. The Communism of North Korea North Korea describes her communism as founded on the so-called â€Å"immortal Juche Idea† developed by Kim Il Sung. Kim Il Sung started developing the Juche idea during the North Korean struggle against Japanese invasion in World War II (â€Å"Constitution of the People’s Democratic Republic of Korea of 1998,† 3rd paragraph, Preface). The Juche Idea is the ideological foundation of North Korean communism and socialist ideals. North Korean communists consider that it is their task to remodel Korean society along the ideals of the Juche Idea founded by Kim Il Sung (Korean Friendship Association 1). In the view of North Korean comm unists, â€Å"only when one is firmly armed with the Juche Idea and advances under its banner, would it be possible to emerge victorious in revolution and construction, surmounting all difficulties and trials† (Korean Friendship Association 2). From the perspective or propaganda of North Korean communism among themselves, the Juche Idea is the conviction that the North Korean people has â€Å"acquired through the history of revolutionary struggle spanning over half a century† (Korean Friendship Association 2). Like other communist parties and movements, the Juche Idea adheres to Marxism-Leninism (Korean Friendship Association 2). In particular, the Juche Idea adheres to a typical communist notion that â€Å"Lenin developed Marxism and... Based on this research, socialism is a first stage of communism. In socialism, the rule is to each according to his work while in communism or the rule is â€Å"to each according to his needs, from each according to his ability.† Through the years, however, socialist regimes were confronted with various challenges to modify policies. The main differences between North Korean and Russian Communism are as follows. First, North Korean Communism has explicitly considered itself independent from the Marxist-Leninist ideology through the Juche idea while it is not clear whether Russian Communism has continued to adopt the Marxist-Leninist concepts of a state, socialist society, and communist ideology. Second, the North Korean economy appears to be closer to the traditional notion of a socialist state compared to Russia. Third, private enterprise and private property appears to be more restricted in North Korea compared to Russia. Fourth, North Korean communist ideology uses the Juch e rather than Marxism-Leninism. North Korean Juche is basically socialist/communist ideology but with this twist: North Korean communist ideology has more rhetoric on humanism, independence, and humanity as the center of the Juche ideology. Fourth, North Korean communism or socialism appears to be more restrictive against private property while it does not seem to be case for Russian communism or socialist. Finally or fifth, unlike other communists, North Korean communism focuses on a claim to socialism that is more humanity centered. Unfortunately, however, it is currently the socialist or communist country with the greatest nuclear ambitions.

Tuesday, September 24, 2019

Domestic and Regional Regulation in the Airlines Sector Essay

Domestic and Regional Regulation in the Airlines Sector - Essay Example However, the civil aviation sector has only contributed to ~3% of anthropogenic warming in the last 20 years, and therefore, it is a relatively small contributor to the phenomenon of climate change2. While using this argument, it is arguable that any climate policy involving the airline industry must strike a balance between the abatement costs and emissions reductions. The airline sector makes several arguments about aviation’s impact on climate change, including the fact that the industry has improved efficiency of aircraft fuel by more than 70%, which has brought together their environmental and economic goals3. Moreover, aggressive pursuit of increased fuel efficiency means that emissions of greenhouse gases from the sector account for less than 3% of total EU greenhouse gas emissions. However, the sector’s contribution to climate change has continued to elicit heated debate with EU-based environmental groups argue that the figure is closer to 10%4. The examination of these arguments and counterarguments must take metrics and language used into consideration in determining the actual impact of the aviation sector on climate change. Whatever the case, the airline sector in the EU faces a serious barrier to continued growth. Commercial aircraft are almost entirely reliant on jet fuel like kerosene, which means that their combustion by-products are unavoidable and, therefore, their regulation would risk increased production costs5. The lack of commercially viable, alternative sources of energy means that any regulations and policies seeking to mitigate climate change must take on a sectoral or industry-specific dimension to protect the airline sector’s economic viability6. Therefore, climate change deliberations at the Paris 2015 Conference on Climate Change should find policy prescriptions that mitigate climate change, while also considering dominant cost drivers.  

Monday, September 23, 2019

Cross Subsidizing Political Groups in the Name of Agriculture Essay

Cross Subsidizing Political Groups in the Name of Agriculture - Essay Example The intention of the talk was making fair international law for a balanced trade approach for developing countries.This round could not fetch any results as there was no agreement on farm subsidies and market access.But it also decided to further continue talks in next negotiations. The Ministerial Declaration launching the Doha Development Agenda reflects the "broad agenda" and the focus on development.: It mandates negotiations on agriculture, industrial products, services, intellectual property (geographical indications, TRIPs, and Health), the "Singapore issues" (investment, competition, transparency in government procurement and trade facilitation), WTO rules (anti-dumping, subsidies, regional trade agreements) and trade and environment. Doha Development Agenda, European Union and WTO, Trade Issues, European Unions says that its primary objects in the WTO were multilateral trade rulemaking, market opening, the integration of developing countries in the world trade system and the improvement of the functioning of the WTO   it has believed that doing away with high tariffs, tariff peaks, and tariff escalation will significantly increase trade opportunities between North and South EU points out that market access negotiations on services would help in improving market opportunities for business as well as benefits to consumers worldwide. But it stood against general deregulation or privatization of sectors where principles of public interest are at stake. European Union's stand was that Doha Development Agenda succeed only if development opportunities of individual members, makes a tangible contribution to international efforts in favor of sustainable development and increases. We had seen large protests and processions consequent to every talk. There is a lot of lobbying for and against the trade negotiations inside and outside the international trade bodies. It is not economics, but its impact on domestic politics was the major cause for each and every co untry.The last one decade has seen a tremendous effort from the developing countries going for substantial efforts to make structural changes in their economies as part of reform agenda. Elimination of export subsidies, reductions in, and tighter criteria for, domestic "trade-distorting" subsidies in developed countries, reduction of tariff peaks and standardization and rationalization of food safety and processing requirements In this background there should have been some efforts from the developed world to genuinely address the concern of the developing world. Anyhow Doha meet was failed in reaching any concrete step before the next talk. In the year2003, Members again get together at Cancà ºn to forge concrete agreement on the Doha round objectives. The focus of Cancun negotiations was on agriculture, industrial goods, trade services and customer codes reforms. But again the developed world and developing world fight in the agriculture sector.Here also rich countries’ fa rm subsidies such as European Union's Common Agriculture Policies and US governments agro subsidies were the major roadblock.

Sunday, September 22, 2019

International businesscoca cola Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1500 words

International businesscoca cola - Essay Example During economic recession, specific tariffs afford the local producers protection from foreign competition. The tax does not consider the value of the imported products but is based on the specific quantity of the imported products such as the volume or weight of the imported product (Carbaugh 2011). Specific tariffs affect the competitiveness of any company importing raw materials abroad. The tariffs will increase the prices of the products that are manufactured through use of raw materials that have been charged specific tariffs. For instance, if Coca Cola sets up operations in Myanmar and decides to import raw materials from other countries, the costs of production per unit will be high due to the specific tariffs that have been charged on the imported raw materials. Specific tariffs will be used by developing countries like Myanmar in order to protect the infant beverage industry from international competition from established players like Coca Cola and Pepsi. In addition, the My anmar government will also benefit through increased tax revenues by charging Coca Cola specific tariffs for the imported raw materials. Unfortunately, the domestic consumers will incur suffering due to higher prices for the Coca Cola brands. Generally, in the short term, the higher prices of products due to specific tariffs on raw materials will reduce the consumption by the customers, but the government will benefit from the increased revenues. On the other hand, free trade benefits the global economy through increased competition that leads to reduction in consumer prices and a variety of innovative products in the market (Tallman 2010). Question two: Coca Cola is a beverage manufacturing multinational company that was established in 1886. The company is headquartered in Atlanta, USA, and has operations in more than 200 countries. The brand portfolio includes more than 450 brands that are consumed to close to 1.5 billion people daily across the globe. The company has attained a 9 0 percent customer loyalty, and about 45 percent of the global beverage market share due to quality and innovative brands. The mission of Coca Cola is to refresh the world, create value to customers and inspire moments of happiness and optimism among the customers. The vision of the company is to provide a great working environment for the employees, provide quality brands to customers, act responsibly to the communities and maximise the long term returns to the investors. Coca Cola has operated in most of the countries in Southeast Asia except North Korea, Cuba and Myanmar. Due to the recent easing of the trade embargos by the European Union and United States on Myanmar, Coca cola can now enter the market after six decades. The European Union and the United States have allowed the US Corporations and citizens to invest in Myanmar after the ruling junta turned in to a democratically elected government thus paving way for civil authority in the country. Coca Cola international busine ss strategy is to operate a local business model in every target country; thus, Coca Cola has the opportunity of entering Myanmar. The company can sell bottled water, juices and sodas that are considered important in Myanmar. 2. Competitive position 2.1 Competitive position Coca Cola has attained a global leadership position in the soft drinks industry. The company has more than 400 brands and serves almost over 1.5 million customers daily. Coca

Saturday, September 21, 2019

The influence of Norman Conquest on Old English Essay Example for Free

The influence of Norman Conquest on Old English Essay The world of Old English Literature underwent a radical upheaval due to the invasion of the new French Language and culture which was an aftermath of the Norman conquest of 1066 which set into motion a very different trend of life and literature in the island of Brittany. The influence of the Norman culture, especially its literary aspect is immense. The debts of the vernacular literature of France penetrated very little into the English soil as the French were no apostles of culture. However, the Norman Conquest forced English into a subservient position from which it only gradually re-emerged as a language simplified in structure and its spelling, vocabulary and literary expression were strongly influenced by the arrival of the French language and culture. It has been very rightly put by Sampson that the asperities of the Northern Ocean and the Baltic were softened by the waters of the Mediterranean. The English had always been a poetic race and the Norman Conquest enhanced this trait by introducing the Romance Vocabulary which seeped into the English language and made it more beautiful and apt for poetry. An exclusive aristocratic taste for the forms, tropes, and subjects of contemporary French Literature shifted the subjects of writing in English away from its old Germanic insularity towards a broader, shared, Western European pattern. The warrior hero hung up his sword, took up a musical instrument and began to sing songs of love. The Trouveres of Northern France influenced War poetry, allegory became a popular sub generic form, and the lyric and the Romance which started being penned brought out the best of the French rhyme and assonance which became the new mode for expression of poetic ideas. In short, the Norman Conquest replaced the sinister and melancholic psycho sphere of English with the clear blue sky of the French counter-part, decked with glamour and vitality of youthful spring. The Norman Conquest opened England’s doors to Continental Literature and the Englishmen came in contact with the culture of Bagdad, Spain and they also became aware of the wisdom of the East which greatly strengthened the impetus of learning. Learning and Literature further gained by the coming of great scholars like Lanfranc who opened the famous monastic school at Bec and also by the interconnection between great centers of learning like Paris and Oxford. As a result of the Norman Conquest, Wessex lost its political and cultural importance because of which its dialect of West Saxon which had established its supremacy in the Anglo-Saxon Age lost its former stronghold which led to the flourishing of other Middle English dialects as the writers were now encouraged to write in the dia lects of their own region. The newfound political, economic and geographical importance of London and not Winchester as the administrative center of the kingdom also helped to determine the future written and spoken forms of the ‘standard English’ of today. However, with the growing prestige and popularity of French, the native culture and language had to suffer from aristocratic unconcern and neglect. This is noticeable in the fact that the alliterative verses of the Anglo-Saxon Age were replaced by the French rhymed verses, although they revived again later in the mid fourteenth century. The Norman Conquest stands for much more than a change of rulers. It altered the socio-cultural life of England and imparted a higher and more sophisticated and specialized order of civilization. The English language lost its rigid inflexions and was enhanced by ornamental vocabulary. The writers of English, at school under the new masters of the land were able to give fuller expression to their creative impulses. The stage was set for the full blossoming of the genius of Chaucer.

Friday, September 20, 2019

Privacy Law in the UK

Privacy Law in the UK Definition of Privacy Judge T. Cooley provided the earliest and one of the simplest definitions of privacy, defining it as the right to be left alone.[1] However, throughout the years, many different definitions have come about in a more positive light rather than a negative, such as, the right to be able to communicate information freely or simply, to keep such information to ourselves. The Younger Committee Report[2] followed on from Judge Cooley concluding that there was no satisfactory way of beginning to define privacy, nevertheless, the Calcutt Committee Report went further and mentioned that it would however, be possible to define it legally and went on to adopt this approach in their first report regarding privacy; The right of the individual to be protected against intrusion into his personal life of affairs, or those of his family, by direct physical means or by publication of information.[3] The Calcutt Committee then issued a further Report in response to Lord Chancellors Department for Infringement of Privacy to which had criticised English Law declaring, it had not adequately protected the privacy of individuals to which they called for an immediate need for some sort of privacy legislation in the UK.[4] The UK Government then followed on from previous attempts at defining what privacy consists of, stating; Every individual has a right to privacy comprising: A right to be free from harassment and molestation; and A right to privacy of personal information, communications and documents.[5] Yet, in this day in age, privacy is still perhaps the most difficult to define, as the definitions of privacy can vary depending on the context and environment that it is used in. As in various countries, the concept of privacy has been merged with data protection, which can interpret privacy in the terms of a management of personal information. However, it can also be frequently seen as a way of drawing the line at how far society can intrude into a persons affairs. Robert Ellis Smith, the editor of the Privacy Journal defined privacy as; the desire by each of use for physical space where we can be free of interruption, intrusion, embarrassment, or accountability and the attempt to control the time and manner of disclosures of personal information about ourselves.[6] To which Edward Bloustein to an extent agreed with this, mentioning that privacy is an interest of the human personality, as it can protect the inviolate personality, the individuals independence, dignity and integrity. [7] Therefore, it can be concluded that, though there are various different interpretations of privacy, it can prove difficult to define, and get just one specific meaning for it that can relate to everyone. However, most of the definitions pay close attention to the interests of human personality, as well as, deciding where to draw the line at how far society can intrude into a persons private affairs. Why do we need Privacy? Every person needs some sort of privacy, whether that be for their physical, mental, emotional or spiritual wellbeing. So much so, that it is well established that everyone is actually entitled to a degree of privacy in their lifetime. Although, it has not been a fundamental and enforced right in English law, the need for some sort of individual privacy legislation has been often recognised. However, the Younger Committee concluded that a general privacy legislation would create a mass of uncertainty, so instead of developing a general right for privacy, they took the approach that; [the] best way to ensure regard for privacy is to provide specific and effective sanctions against clearly defined activities which unreasonably frustrate the individual in his search for privacy.[8] However, it can be argued that without central rules on privacy, it would be much easier for individuals to gain private information on various others, as well as, it would also be difficult for prosecutions against individuals that invade the privacy of others. [9] Privacy in the UK There is no freestanding right to privacy in the UK, with the courts repeatedly stating that English law knows no common law tort of invasion of privacy.[10] As an alternative, the cause of action for breach of confidence has been extended to encompass misuse of wrongful dissemination of private information. [11] However, expansion of the law in this area has occurred throughout the years. The earliest example in the UK of protecting an individuals privacy is seen in Thompson v Stanhope,[12] where an injunction was granted by the court preventing and restraining the publication of private letters that were sent from Lord Chesterfield to his son, by his widow. However, this case was followed by various other cases, such as Prince Albert v Strange, [13] where the Prince sought to restrain publication of otherwise unpublished private etchings and other lists of works by Queen Victoria, to which were obtained by an employee to whom Price Albert had trusted. This case provides a good illustration of how the right to confidence protects privacy. Although the right to privacy was not recognised at the time, it was argued on behalf of Queen Victoria and Prince Albert that they had a right to keep private the art works that they had commissioned for their personal enjoyment. Ruling in favour of Queen Victoria and Prince Albert, the court held: Every man has a right to keep his own sentiments, if he pleases. He has certainly a right to judge whether he will make them public or commit them only to the sight of his friends. Whereas the court further held that the publication of the etchings invaded the Royal Familys right to privacy, in the sense of a right to control ones possessions and enjoy them. More developments in UK privacy were issued in the case of Malone v Metropolitan Police Commissioner, [14] Malone held that his right to privacy was breached by the Metropolitan Police by means of interception of his telephone calls. He claimed that the police interception of his phone calls had been unlawful on the grounds that it concerned itself with breach of confidence, trespass and an unlawful interference with his privacy. However, the case was dismissed by Sir Robert Megarry, stating: English law did not entertain actions for interference with privacy unless the interference amounted to one of the established causes of actions in tort or equity.[15] Though, Malone appealed to the ECtHR that a breach of Article 8 had occurred, to which the court found in favour of Malone and this decision influenced a response by the UK Parliament in regards to Interception of Communications Act 1985 and Police Act 1997[16] which was introduced to control telephone interceptions. [17] This decision was later echoed in the case of Wainwright Anor v Home Office, [18] where Lord Hoffmann saw a great danged in the courts attempting to fashion a tort based on the unjustified invasion of privacy. He however, preferred the idea that parliament should legislate for such protection since there will invariably be exception and defences. How the Law has developed due to the introduction of the ECHR? What is in the public interest is not the same as what is of interest to the public, to which, in simple terms the court will balance a persons right to a private and family life against the medias right to freedom of expression. This is an area of the law that has developed significantly following the incorporation of the European Convention on Human Rights into UK law in 1998. Bibliography Cooley TM, A Treatise on the Law of Torts, Or, The Wrongs Which Arise Independent of Contract (1st edn, Callaghan 1879) 29 Smith RE, Ben Franklins web site: Privacy and curiosity from Plymouth rock to the internet (Privacy Journal 2000) 7 Crystal G, Protecting your privacy (Civil Rights Movement, 2000) accessed 04 January 2017 [1] Thomas M. Cooley, A Treatise on the Law of Torts, Or, The Wrongs Which Arise Independent of Contract (1st edn, Callaghan 1879) 29 [2] Department of National Heritage, Younger Committee Report on Privacy (Cmnd 5021, HMSO 1972) [3] Department of National Heritage, Calcutt Committee Report on Privacy and Related Matters (Cm 1102, HMSO 1990) 7 [4] Department of National Heritage, Calcutt Review of Press Self-Regulation (Cm 2135, HMSO 1993) [5] Department of National Heritage, Parliament Privacy and media intrusion: The Governments response to the House of Commons National Heritage Select Committee (Cm 2918, HMSO 1995) [6] Robert Ellis Smith, Ben Franklins web site: Privacy and curiosity from Plymouth rock to the internet. (Privacy Journal 2000) 7 [7] Edward J. Bloustein, Privacy as an aspect of human dignity: An answer to Dean Prosser (1964) 39.6 N.Y.U. L. Rev 962 1007> accessed 05 January 2017 [8] Department of National Heritage, Younger Committee Report on Privacy (Cmnd 5021, HMSO 1972) [9] Garry Crystal, Protecting your privacy (Civil Rights Movement, 2000) accessed 04 January 2017 [10] OBG Ltd v Allan; Douglas v Hello! Ltd [2007] 2 WLR 920, [272]. See also Wainwright v Home Office [2004] 2 AC 406. [11] Campbell v MGN Ltd [2004] 2 AC 457; B McDonald, Privacy, Princesses, and Paparazzi (2005-2006) 50 New York Law School Law Review 205, 232. See also Hosking v Runting [2005] 1 NZLR 1, [23]-[53]. [12] (1774) Amb. 737 [13] [1849] EWHC Ch J20 [14] [1979] Ch 344 [15] [16] Police Act 1997 Part III [17] Malone v United Kingdom [1984] ECHR 8691/79 [18] [2003] UKHL 53

Thursday, September 19, 2019

The Hero in Homer’s The Odyssey, and Marjane Satrapi’s Persepolis Essay

"A hero is an ordinary individual who finds the strength to persevere and endure in spite of overwhelming obstacles." -- Christopher Reeve Throughout a life time, people hear many different definitions of heroism and examples of heroes. In childhood, heroes are either fictional men with supernatural abilities and talents or protectors of reality, such as firefighters and policemen; in adolescence, heroes can be actors, athletes, artists, and teachers; in adulthood, heroes may be activists or reporters, politicians or businessmen. Bonnie Tyler, a popular singer, describes her ideal hero saying â€Å"he’s gotta be strong and he’s gotta be fast and he’s gotta be fresh from the fight† (â€Å"Holding Out for a Hero† 1984). If the definition changes with age and personal preference, what truly makes up a real- life hero? The characterization of a literary hero is somewhat easier to define. Although the definition is subject to time, place, and situation, many characters that are defined as heroes throughout history have similar traits. Dorothy Norman and Roy Pickett attempt to c learly state this definition in their books The Hero: Myth/Image/Symbol and The Theme of the Hero, respectively. By using the classic hero from Homer’s The Odyssey, Odysseus, and a character not usually defined as a hero, Marji from Marjane Satrapi’s Persepolis, this paper will dissect the standards Norman and Pickett use to identify heroes and will determine whether an ancient warrior and a modern, strong-willed child both have the characteristics to be correctly defined as heroes for their time. In her book The Hero: Myth/Image/Symbol, Dorothy Norman analyzes the roles of heroes throughout ancient history and formulates a loose set of guidelines under... ...character that emits hope and displays the victories and vices of humanity. It is through this character that the audience is able to experience the heroic journey and hopefully begin a heroic journey in their own lives as they look to the examples of Odysseus, Marji, and other fictional heroes who personally affected them. Works Cited Frye, Northrop. â€Å"Fictional Modes†. The Anatomy of Criticism. Princeton, NJ; Princeton U. Print. Homer, Robert Fagles, and Bernard Knox. The Odyssey. New York: Viking, 1996. Print. Norman, Dorothy. The Hero:Myth/Image/Symbol. Cleveland, OH: World, 1969. Print. Pickett, Roy G. The Theme of the Hero. Dubuque, IA: W.C. Brown, 1969. Print. Satrapi, Marjane. Persepolis. New York: Pantheon, 2003. Print. Tyler, Bonnie. â€Å"Holding Out for a Hero.† 1985. Song lyrics. Web. 6 June 2015., 2012. The Hero in Homer’s The Odyssey, and Marjane Satrapi’s Persepolis Essay "A hero is an ordinary individual who finds the strength to persevere and endure in spite of overwhelming obstacles." -- Christopher Reeve Throughout a life time, people hear many different definitions of heroism and examples of heroes. In childhood, heroes are either fictional men with supernatural abilities and talents or protectors of reality, such as firefighters and policemen; in adolescence, heroes can be actors, athletes, artists, and teachers; in adulthood, heroes may be activists or reporters, politicians or businessmen. Bonnie Tyler, a popular singer, describes her ideal hero saying â€Å"he’s gotta be strong and he’s gotta be fast and he’s gotta be fresh from the fight† (â€Å"Holding Out for a Hero† 1984). If the definition changes with age and personal preference, what truly makes up a real- life hero? The characterization of a literary hero is somewhat easier to define. Although the definition is subject to time, place, and situation, many characters that are defined as heroes throughout history have similar traits. Dorothy Norman and Roy Pickett attempt to c learly state this definition in their books The Hero: Myth/Image/Symbol and The Theme of the Hero, respectively. By using the classic hero from Homer’s The Odyssey, Odysseus, and a character not usually defined as a hero, Marji from Marjane Satrapi’s Persepolis, this paper will dissect the standards Norman and Pickett use to identify heroes and will determine whether an ancient warrior and a modern, strong-willed child both have the characteristics to be correctly defined as heroes for their time. In her book The Hero: Myth/Image/Symbol, Dorothy Norman analyzes the roles of heroes throughout ancient history and formulates a loose set of guidelines under... ...character that emits hope and displays the victories and vices of humanity. It is through this character that the audience is able to experience the heroic journey and hopefully begin a heroic journey in their own lives as they look to the examples of Odysseus, Marji, and other fictional heroes who personally affected them. Works Cited Frye, Northrop. â€Å"Fictional Modes†. The Anatomy of Criticism. Princeton, NJ; Princeton U. Print. Homer, Robert Fagles, and Bernard Knox. The Odyssey. New York: Viking, 1996. Print. Norman, Dorothy. The Hero:Myth/Image/Symbol. Cleveland, OH: World, 1969. Print. Pickett, Roy G. The Theme of the Hero. Dubuque, IA: W.C. Brown, 1969. Print. Satrapi, Marjane. Persepolis. New York: Pantheon, 2003. Print. Tyler, Bonnie. â€Å"Holding Out for a Hero.† 1985. Song lyrics. Web. 6 June 2015., 2012.

Wednesday, September 18, 2019

Immanuel Kant Essay -- Immanuel Kant Deontology Ethics

Immanuel Kant Immanuel Kant was born, lived and passed away in his home town of Konigsberg. He lived from 1724 to 1804. He studied at the local university and later returned to tutor and lecture students. It wasn’t until he met an English merchant by the name of Joseph Green that Kant learned of David Hume and began to develop his ideas of morals and values. Kant’s Critique of Pure Reason (1781) is believed by many to be his greatest work. Kant’s was known mainly, however, for his moral code The Categorical Imperative. Immanuel Kant was a follower of Deontology, or duty ethics. This means that for an act to be moral it must be performed out of duty. If you are concerned for the end product of your actions it is not a moral act. Only when your action is done in such a way that your only ...

Tuesday, September 17, 2019

Different Styles of Learning Essay

Different styles of learning were the topic of conversation this week during a class discussion. We were asked by our instructor to first discover and talk about what our personal styles of learning are and share what helps us be successful in a learning environment. Next we were tasked to discover what our actual learning abilities were against a few online brainteasers. The information given by these sites have given me a chance to step back and ask myself what and how different styles of learning affect me. With that said, I personal believe that these sites should be used as a generic scale and not a basis of what students true learning potential are. One of the first steps of understanding what kind of student you are is to pin point what your ability to learn is and use your strong points to help push you through your goals. I have learned from this subject that there are several types of learning styles, Visual, Auditory and Kinesthetic. Through a short test I completed I learned that I am 46% Auditor, 29% Visual and 25% kinesthetic (Advanogy. com, 2004). From the questions that were asked and the results I received I believe that is test is correct on its calculation. I feel like I learn more accurately under the guidance of a teacher. The second test I took also indicated that I rated highest in aural learning ability (Bixler, 2010). Based on these results from the two web sites. I agree that I prefer to learn by listening and that written tests can slow me down because I tend to read every question to myself. (Advanogy. com, 2004) Motivation and foundation are the two keys I believe in for styles of learning. Motivation â€Å"is a psychological feature that arouses an organism to act towards a desired goal and elicits, controls, and sustains certain goal-directed behaviors† Wikipedia (2013). What the definition of motivation doesn’t state is how to get it, and sustain it. In my opinion motivation maybe gained though a few different avenues, such as hardship, prenatal encouragement/guidance and the will to overcome bad life decisions and raise above family, peers and others expectation of you. Without motivation I would not be able to continue through this our any other course I am pursuing. Second, foundation is the ground that builds an object. Without a proper foundation an object cannot stand new obstacles and will most likely fail. Now what I’m referring to is foundation of education. Foundation is one of the keys to a student’s ability to become successful in a learning environment. This is most likely passed down through the leaders of the student’s family. Some of my keys of foundation are; organization skills, importance of building character, compassion and setting feasible short term and long term goal. I unfortunately was not given the best educational opportunity growing up; my parents have always let their children figure out their problems and give little to no guidance. This situation left my education to the wayside, but I will not let that excuse continue to affect my family or myself. I have learned throughout my years in the Coast Guard that you cannot change your past but that you can change your future. To fully understand what different learning styles are, you first have to go out and find them. They cannot found on Internet based test or even someone’s opinion. You must seek the information from qualified educators and bust your tail to better your understanding of a subject.

Monday, September 16, 2019

Early Childhood Education Essay

â€Å"Children are our future. † This explains to you, the reader, why I chose to dive into the career path of Early Childhood Education. In this essay I will explain to you what the job of an early Childhood professional is, what training they need and what standards they are expected to maintain. These are all important facts in becoming an Early Childhood professional. First of all, what is the job of an Early Childhood professional? Well, their job is to nourish the growth of children, support families, and work closely with coworkers. Their work with children begins before the first child arrives, and continues until after the last child leaves. Early Childhood educators spend a lot of time with not only the children, but with the families of the children. The book, â€Å"Who Am I in the Lives of Children† states that â€Å"young children cannot be separated from the context of their homes, so relating to and working with families is an important part of the role of the Early Childhood educator. † If your not a people person, this job may not be for you. Educators provide a safe and secure environment for the children, allowing them to grow and blossom into an independent child, with a personality of their own. Early Childhood education may take a number of faces including family childcare providers and nannies, teacher aides or teacher assistants, assistant teachers or assistant care givers, teachers or care givers, master teachers or head teachers and lastly, directors. Members of this field share a mission, commitment and set of values. Also, they have agreed on standards, in the form of a code of ethics. In one single day, an Early Childhood professional may function as a teacher, friend, secretary, parent, colleague, nurse, janitor, counselor, entertainer, and a diplomat. Second of all, what training are Early Childhood professionals expected to have? Well, paraphrasing from the book, â€Å"Who Am I in the Lives of Children,† the training and experience required will be determined by program licensing. Requirements vary from state to state. In some states being in good health and having a diploma are all that is necessary. Most states require that teachers and care givers in center based programs be qualified for their jobs through training, either by having a college degree, or a CDA credential(Child Development Associate). From what I know you need approximately 12 units of ECE training to go into the field of Early Childhood education. Lastly, what standards are Early Childhood professionals expected to maintain? I think the core values of early childhood education are very important to maintain. These core values are: appreciating childhood as a unique a valuable stage of the human life cycle basing our work with children on knowledge of child development appreciating and supporting the close ties between the child and the family recognizing that children are best understood in the context of family, culture and society Respecting the dignity, worth and uniqueness of each individual (child, family member and colleague) Helping children and adults achieve their full potential in the context of relationships that are based on trust, respect and positive reguard. The NAEYC Code of Ethical Conduct is also important is the field of Early Childhood education. (A copy of the code is found in the appendix of, â€Å"Who Am I in the Lives of Children†) These two things are important because young children are vulnerable and lack the power to defend themselves. In conclusion, when people say that â€Å"you just babysit kids† they are wrong. Being an Early Childhood professional is a very important job. You are helping shape and raise our future’s leaders.

Sunday, September 15, 2019

Communication Challenges to Modern Day Business Essay

Communication is defined as the process of transferring information and meaning between senders and receivers, using one or more written, oral, visual or electronic channels. Simply put, communication is the exchange of information between people. It is important to get feedback from your audience and vice versa for the process of communication to take place effectively. The feedback can be either positive or negative. It is any communication used in an organization with an intention to promote a product, improve service or with the intention to make a sale. This type of communication also occurs within the organization between the management and employees. It has purpose and a lot of attention is given to the details. Business communication has undergone a lot of transformation as a result of the growth of information technology that has changed the whole concept of communication. In the past, businesses had a model of communication that left very little room for interaction and conversation with the receiver of the message. Currently the model that works and is now used by most organisations is one that gives room to both conversation and interaction with the receivers. Communication is very vital in any organization. Like blood in our bodies, it is the channel that gives life to the organisation and without it, organisations would not be functional. Effective communication plays a significant role in the success of the business, as communication works to send information, control behavior and motivate workers. Today there are many more ways to communicate than there were just a few years ago and access to communication devices is almost universal in most businesses. Good communication means the intended message that is send is received by a group of audience without any distortions in meaning. This definition applies to not only personal communication among friends or relatives, but to business situations where you may be communicating with a co-worker one-on-one or in a meeting with several or more people. The key here is clarity Communication is also almost instantaneous. Good business communication is simple and easily understood, a rule often overlooked by managers and team members. This is especially important when preparing a document, speech or presentation that is a game-changer for the company. Simple and concise language wins over language that is obtuse and hard to understand. Business communication defines most organizations, resulting in effective marketing campaigns, productive interpersonal relationships among co-workers and successful customer service resolutions. Since audiences demand different kinds of communications in different situations and settings, effective business communication professionals understand how to tailor messages for maximum results. Several communication challenges exist within day-to-day business operations, especially with technology. Technology benefits organizational communication by lifting communication restrictions caused by time and distance. At the same time, the removal of time and distance as communication factors has led to the challenges of information overload and constant accessibility. The issue of constant accessibility has led to blurring of the lines between personal and professional lives. There are several barriers: Emotion serves as an obstacle to effective communication, as emotion can interfere with making rational decisions. Differences in culture can be a communication challenge for international businesses. Not understanding the language and customs of other cultures can lead to poor sales and public relation disasters. There are a number of recognised barriers in the modern day communication, many of which go unnoticed, that can and do effect the standards of communication a person feels comfortable with. Physical barriers are often down to the nature of the environment in which communication may take place but are not always interpreted by the recipient in the correct manor. For example an office door being closed could signify to a co-worker that someone does not want to be bothered, or is possibly in a bad mood, whereas the occupant of the office could have possibly closed the door due to a breeze or didn’t close the door them self at all. This is an example of misinterpretation of actions brought about by the physical barrier of the door. Barriers like this can often present the risk of a ripple effect; in that the barrier in this situation could damage the recipients’ perception of the source by making the recipient feel outcast or shut out by the inhabitant of the office, which would set up the standings of a bad communicative relationship. Issues in communication can be disturbed when the basic mechanics of the communication method are damaged directly.

Saturday, September 14, 2019

Avi’s Crispin: The Cross of Lead Essay

The story basically takes place in the era of the fourteenth century wherein half the world has prudently changed it such delight as movements have started to unfold the belligerent realm of the country. â€Å"Crispin is somebody who thinks of himself as nothing, and in the course of the book, comes to think of himself as something. † This is what Avi says of his latest fictional hero, Crispin, a 13-year-old in 14th-century England who’s running for his life. Here’s a quick glimpse at this exciting adventure story. Once master and apprentice arrive in Great Wexly for the Midsummer’s Day festivities and some seditious intrigue on Bear’s part, Avi slows down and offers both the reader and Crispin a chance to look around, but things speed up again with the reappearance of the steward and pursuit through the streets of the medieval city. The story commences with a funeral, that of a community recluse whose precedent is wearing a veil in vagueness and whose minor lad is recognized merely as â€Å"Asta’s son. † Stuck in sorrow for his protector, the boy discovers his moniker, Crispin, commencing from the rural community cleric, even though his apparently dead father’s personality and identification for that matter remains unclear. The words imprinted on his mother’s precious ‘lead cross’ may endow with some sign, but the priest is murdered before he can enlighten him with the illiterate lead. Worse, Crispin is alleged over the murder by the manor warden, hence naming him as a â€Å"wolf’s head† (wanted dead or alive), but then again, it is subliminally preferably dead. Crispin leaves the twon who hated him for no valid reason, and became a traveling performer. The cause for the steward’s enmity is finally revealed–Crispin is the illegitimate son of the local lord, who recently died without an heir–but the expected ending gets a surprise twist when Crispin trades this birthright for Bear’s safety. From Crispin’s initial religious dependence and inability to meet others’ eyes to his eventual choice of his own path and freedom, the theme of self-determination is carried lightly, giving this quick, easily digested thriller just the right amount of heft. Indeed, it offers a whole new dimension of prose in the modern day readers. Reference: Avi. (2004). Crispin: The Cross of Lead. New York: Hyperion.

Audience, Anaylsis and Reception

Knowing the audience that you are presenting in front of is as important to knowing what you will be talking about. Most individuals are prepared with notes and other Items to help them stay on topic and well informed on the subject they are presenting on. Knowing the audience will let you know how detailed of a report you will have to write, if it is for the boss, they might except information on the topic, how the topic can be improve business, how Is this different from other organizations, the finances on how much it will take to get down.Yet If It Is for your fellow employees, they might Just want to know more Information on the topic and how It will Improve the business. Having an Idea of the audience that will be reading your report as an example like corporate executives or special guests that might be Glenn feedback on the report Is Important also. These Individuals might have specific knowledge on the topic and their research and analysis might be expected In the report and management might except feedback from them about the report.They might also except acknowledgment in the report on the Information you gotten from their research and/ or previous analysis. These potential understanding can help make a smoother report on the presenters part because they will know more of what to except after the report is read. And if these needs are not might more than likely management will look for a revised report with more specifics, management might want to let you go based on a bad report.If I had to write a report at my workplace I old know that my boss and her husband are difficult individuals to satisfy, I would have to make sure to provide as much details as possible on the subject, where I obtained the information, how credible are those resources and how will this improve their business with the finance numbers on how much will it take to get done. If the needs were not might with my report, management will except from me to improve upon what I already wrote; taking the feedback given to me or they will let me go based on a poor report on a topic that is in my Job description.

Friday, September 13, 2019

Macroeconomics Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1000 words - 7

Macroeconomics - Essay Example expenditure, thus Another way to reach eqn. (3) is to start from the equilibrium at the market for loanable funds. National saving (S) can be considered to be the supply of loans in the economy and national (gross) investments (I) as demand for the loans. Now, The govt. expenditure multiplier is 1/ (1-c1), as calculated from eqn. (3), where, c1 = MPC. In this example MPC is 0.8. Hence, a  £1 rise in govt. expenditure will raise the GDP by  £1/ (1-0.8) =  £5. Again from the equation (3) we can calculate the tax-cut multiplier to be c1/ (1-c1). In this example, c1 = 0.8 and hence the value of the multiplier will be 0.8/ (1-0.8) = 4. Therefore a  £1 cut in the income tax would raise the GDP by the amount of  £4 and so a  £100 million of tax cut shall raise the GDP by 4 x  £100 million =  £400 million. If now G goes up by  £100 million GDP would rise by  £500 million. Again if this increased G is financed by raising T by  £100 million, i.e. if T goes up by  £100 million, GDP would fall by  £400 million. Hence the net effect of this balanced budget fiscal stimulus on GDP would be  £ (500 – 400) million =  £100 million, i.e. GDP would rise exactly by the amount spent on the public activities. In an economy in the short run, the prices as well as wages tend to be sticky. Hence, people often prefer to stay unemployed since they cannot get the right wage for their labour. This is the case that determines the natural rate of unemployment. Again, prices in the short run are sticky as well and thus are used to determine the real wages of workers that they consider to maintain a similar standard of living throughout. The wage setting equation is, W/P = w * (P/Pe) and the price setting equation is, p = P + a(Y – Y*) ADAS Model is a part of the classical model in economics that considers money to be neutral. According to the quantity theory of money, MV = PY where M = Money Supply, V = Velocity of money

Thursday, September 12, 2019

Love Assignment Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 750 words

Love Assignment - Essay Example Furthermore, they focused on the company’s requirements, and have been honest throughout the process. In addition, they knew the software that they were working on, and out of all the other providers, their out of box fit was better than the rest. They worked as a team during the demo, which is a culture that is similar to Harley, and they showed some kind of cultural diversity, which is vital today. About their honesty, they admitted that some of the requirements could not fit the functionality and to counter that shortcoming, they came up with a solution to the problem (Austin, Cotteleer and Sole 21). It also shows that they focused more on the functionality of the product, which was the main idea. Overall, they scored the highest points, meaning that most of the criteria used was satisfactory and nearly matched all the requirements of the company. In this case, then the answer is yes. The provider with the highest matrix wins automatically because this shows that almost all the requirements of the software for the company were met, and the clients were satisfied. The reason that provider scored the highest marks and were the preferred providers for the software was that apart from the functionality, they considered the dynamics of the people who would use the software, ownership issues. One thing that also made them have the highest score is that they stood out in terms of experience in manufacturing and prior similar work. They knew exactly what they were doing right from the start, and they understood the requirements of the company. As stated before, they not only focused on the functionality of the software, their relationship with the organization was impressive, as they showed that they tried to fit in the shoes of the client company. They also showed diversity in their group as they addressed all the areas, both the functionality and the change of the management (Austin, Cotteleer and Sole 20). Therefore, high score

Wednesday, September 11, 2019

Extra Credit Methods Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1250 words

Extra Credit Methods - Essay Example It is thought that once the egg has been fertilized and it becomes slowed or there is blockage of the passage to the uterus, the fertilized ovum is forced to implant before getting to the uterus. Implantation may now erroneously occur in the ovaries, fallopian tubes, abdomen, or other regions outside of the uterus (Clarence, 2009). Causes There are many factors which contribute to the likelihood of a mother experiencing an ectopic pregnancy. The most common contributing factor to the development of an ectopic pregnancy is the Pelvic Inflammatory Disease (PID) (Kamwendo, 2000).This is caused by the upsurge of scar tissue in the oviduct or fallopian tubes that causes damage to cilia. Cilia are hair-like structures found on the inner surface of the fallopian tubes and they help in transporting the egg that has been fertilized to the uterus. Damaging the cilia or blocking of the oviduct is likely to cause an ectopic pregnancy. Ectopic pregnancy can also be caused by post effects of tubal surgery or other factors including tubal ligation, use of Intrauterine Devices (IUD), endometriosis, use of birth control pills that contain progesterone only, inborn or congenital defect of the fallopian tubes, advanced age of the mother and smoking (Clarence, 2009). Apart from physical defects, high estrogen and progesterone levels may possibly increase ectopic pregnancy risk since the hormones are associated with slowing down the transportation of the fertilized ovum through the oviduct (fallopian tube) (Clarence, 2009). There is also a great risk for developing an ectopic pregnancy for women whose mothers took DES (diethylstilbestrol) medication during pregnancy (Clarence, 2009). However, the actual manner in which this happens is still under investigation. According to medical statistics, seventy percent of pregnancies that take place after tubal cautery turn out to be ectopic and also a similar percentage of pregnancies that occur after tubal clips are in the line of the uter us (Kamwendo et al, 2000). This is because reversal of tubal sterilization increases the chance for ectopic pregnancy. It is riskier if more unhelpful methods of tubal ligation like partially removing of the tubes or tubal cautery are used than techniques which are less destructive like tubal clipping. This risk cannot be mitigated by removal of the affected tube whether the other tube appears normal or not. Signs and Symptoms During the early stages of pregnancy, it is hard for a mother to know whether she has an ectopic pregnancy or not since the symptoms are often absent or mild. Clinical observations occur at around 7.2 weeks after last menstrual period normally within 5 to 8 weeks (Clarence, 2009). Later appearance becomes more widespread where communities are dispossessed of up to date diagnostic ability.The early signs include mild pain and discomfort (Clarence, 2009). However, a corpus luteum found on the ovary in a normal pregnancy and may also give the same symptoms. Mild vaginal bleeding is also an early symptom. Falling progesterone levels from the corpus luteum, which is associated with ectopic pregnancy, cause withdrawal bleeding (Clarence, 2009). Late ectopic pregnancy is characterized by bleeding and pain. Bleeding is usually vaginal and internal. External/vaginal bleeding is caused by falling levels of progesterone while internal bleeding is caused by hemorrhage from the tubes affected (Clarence, 2009). Severe internal bleeding

Tuesday, September 10, 2019

Financial Services Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1750 words

Financial Services - Essay Example Limited equity financing is used by most of the small or growth stage businesses. Whereas in debt financing, funds pour in from different quarters like from friends, relatives, etc. Venture capitalists are the most common source of equity funding. Venture capitalists may be institutional risk takers, financial institutions, wealthy persons, etc. and most of them specialize in industries. Venture capitalists are risk takers and show interest only in three to five year old companies that result in more than average profits. These venture capitalists are called as investment gurus whose interest lies in those companies that have major regional and national concerns. Commercial finance companies, financial institutions, banks, savings and loans, Lloyds Bank small business, etc. are some of the sources for debt financing. Because of their positive impact on the whole economy local and state government encourage the growth of the small companies. In debt financing additional funds comes from friends, family, relatives, and industry colleagues, etc when capital investment is smaller. Generally banks formed as a major source for loans for the establishment of small businesses. Banks don't offer long term loans to small firms instead they grant short term loans for machinery and equipment, they also offer demand loans to small firms that reduces the risk of leveraging the funds available. The Income Statement presents the summary of the income earned and the expenses incurred during a financial year. Position statement presents the financial position of the business at the end of the year. b) Financing One of the frequent reasons of business failure is poor management and insufficient and poor management of financing comes second1. For starting or relocating or expanding a business sufficient capital is required. Having good financing is not enough in attaining profits; proper knowledge and planning are required to manage it well. These help in strengthening the management of financing and avoid common mistakes like miscalculating or underestimating the cost. The Income Statement presents the summary of the income earned and the expenses incurred during a financial year. Position statement presents the financial position of the business at the end of the year. By Financial Statements, we mean two statements - (i) Profit and loss A/c or Income Statement, and (ii) Balance Sheet or Position Statements. These are prepared at the end of a given period of time. They are indicators of profitability and financial soundness of the business concern. Thus, analysis of Financial Statement means establishing meaningful relationship between various items of the two financial statements, i.e., income statement and position statement. Applying for a loan Loan application should be well written, so that the reader could get a clear picture of what your plans are. The presentation should be of the best quality in the initial loan proposal and application. Only industry specific details should be included so that reader can easily understand. Earning capacity or profitability The overall objective of a business is to earn a satisfactory return on the funds invested in it. Financial analysis helps in ascertaining whether adequate profits are being earned on the capital invested in the

Monday, September 9, 2019

Business process mapping analysis for achiffa snack foods Essay

Business process mapping analysis for achiffa snack foods - Essay Example The company management has come across a number of gaps within the various systems and operations associated with the production, logistics, supply and warehousing departments. The management had in the past focused on increasing the product line by adding new products to its portfolio, and did not stress on improvement and service. Presently, there are a number of issues that are being faced the company on various fronts. There is an urgent requirement for changes in the facilities and the marketing fronts, customer handling, product pricing, product line system maintenance, packaging and storing of products. The image of being a quick service and supply chain of Achiffa Snack foods has been diminished of lately, resulting in losses to the profit margins of the organization. With pressure to get back on track with better profit margins, it is time that the Achiffa management thinks about implementing changes and improvements and devise a proper improvement strategy that focuses on e nhanced operations and better customer satisfaction. SECTION 1 BUSINESS PROCESS MAPPING ANALYSIS FOR ACHIFFA SNACK FOODS Business process mapping is related to identification of activities that are involved in the business of Achiffa Snack Foods. The process map clearly defines what the business does, the various procedures that are involved. The business process mapping of Achiffa clearly defines the various tasks involved throughout the whole supply chain of the company, from the order placement to the final delivery of the order to the customer. Business process mapping will help the company to identify where the gaps exist within the chain and which task needs more attention from the management and whether or not improvements can be made to the current process, (Kim 2006). Below is the business process mapping for Achiffa Snack Foods. The entire business of the company is divided between six departments which are identified as below – 1. Customer department – This department is in charge of functions likes order generation and collecting payments from customers on time. 2. Sales Department – This is concerned with maintaining the sales of the company at competitive levels. 3. Credit and Invoicing department – This is concerned with the accounts of the entire business. 4. Production Control Department – This is concerned with the production management of the products manufactured by Achiffa Snack foods. 5. Copying Department – This is concerned with the production scheduling and warehousing and logistics scheduling of the final delivery product. 6. Assembly and Shipping – This department is concerned with proper packaging, labeling and shipping of orders on time. PARETO ANALYSIS FOR ACHIFFA SNACK FOODS One of the recommended quality tools for Achiffa Snack food case study is the Pareto Analysis that has helped in identifying and solving the most common problems and concerns within the Achiffa

Sunday, September 8, 2019

Oedipus Rex (play) Critique Movie Review Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 750 words

Oedipus Rex (play) Critique - Movie Review Example This is indicative of his search for his own personal position in the superficial world he has constructed around his identity. E: This quotation proves that Oedipus is destined to find out that he has already harmed himself. He has already lived up to the prophecy that was delivered to him, now he pursues the knowledge that will vindicate the verdict. A: A senator told Creon that he does not stay focused on the actions of his masters. At that moment, Oedipus entered and immediately confronted Creon and asked if he though he was a fool who would immediately defend himself after being accused of murdering the former king. This quotation represents Oedipus’ deployment of defense mechanism as a means of justifying why he could never be implicated in the murder of his father. While at the same time, he deploys the mechanism because he is coming to grips with the conclusion that he could indeed be the murderer. Oedipus is attempting to escape the knowledge of his fulfillment of his preordained fate. While his search for the answer drives him further insane, he feels as if he will never returned to normality until he knows for sure. He escapes the bliss of ignorance out of pure curiosity. Oedipus realized that his self fulfilled prophecy could have been handed down to his daughters who will have no husbands. Hence he seeks their departure with him to a land where he will not be followed by his dreadful past. At this point, Oedipus has accepted his fate and wanted to reveal it to society as a means of self purification. But even then he feels as if the pain is to bearable and travels further down the path of self destruction. This shows that rejection of ones fate forces the individuals to suffer from more pain. If he would have accepted his fate as destiny, he would have been less hard on himself and attributed the wrongful actions to the gods who cast that fate upon

Saturday, September 7, 2019

The discussion on austerity measures Assignment

The discussion on austerity measures - Assignment Example However, consistently high government deficit can be detrimental for the economy in the short run owing to the fact that the government will have to borrow in order to finance government deficit. (Nellis & Parker, 1996). There are two methods through which the government can actually finance its deficit i.e. it can either impose more taxes or have to borrow domestically or from the international organizations such as IMF and World Bank. Similarly having the higher government debt would ultimately put pressure on the government because most of the government revenue would go towards the servicing of the debt. Further, a higher quantum of government debt creates crowding out effect thus reducing the amount of credit available for the private sector. The lack of credit available to the private sector will therefore ultimately increase the interest rates in the economy and therefore invariably affecting the level of investment into the economy. The lack of investment therefore can furthe r result into the lack of capital formation and the economy may not be able to grow according to the estimates. The above laws therefore are critical owing to the fact that they outline the maximum limits to which economic variables such as government debt as well as the deficit can relate to the gross domestic product. Keeping both these economic variables therefore within a certain range will allow the governments to keep the detrimental affects of these economic variables under control. Data published recently indicate that the government deficit as a percentage of the GDP in EU area is 6.3% whereas the government debt is almost 80% of the GDP1. Countries with largest government deficits included Greece, Ireland, UK, Spain and almost all other major economies of the EU. Countries like Ireland and Greece received support from the EU whereas there is growing discussion about the Spain’s ability to repay its sovereign debt owing to higher government debt. Further, UK has init iated austerity measures in order to control the government expenditure so that the government debt can be rationalized. UK’s government deficit in almost 11.5% suggesting that the economy may not be in good shape and there is a greater need to implement economic strategies which can actually allow the country to remain within economic soundness. The higher ratios of the government debt as well as the government deficit therefore may suggest that the economies may require external support in order to keep themselves solvent. Thus the rules outlined clearly provide the best estimates for the countries to keep their debt and deficit within certain percentage to avoid such economic issues. 2) The circular flow of income suggests that there are three players in the economy i.e. the households, firms and the government. The national income which is generated in the economy therefore is generated with the interaction of these three economic entities. The exact relationship between these components therefore can be described in following equation: Y= AD= C + I + G The above relationship assumes that there is no external trade with other countries. However, if we introduce the trade with the external world, the above relationship will be : Y = AD= C+I+G+X X= Total exports – Total Imports The components of aggregate demand include the consumption, investment, government expenditure assuming that there is no foreign trade. The circular flow of income therefore suggests that the goods and services produced by the firms are consumed by

Friday, September 6, 2019

Ten Simple Ways to Improve My English Essay Example for Free

Ten Simple Ways to Improve My English Essay 1. This is what most people would advise: read. Read anything and everything in English. You can read storybooks, newspapers, magazines, blocs, comics, English textbooks, instructions and ingredients on food packages, advertisements, etc. For story books, don’t force yourself to read something too difficult or something you know you won’t enjoy. Make reading fun! Read books that you enrjoy eading. I hate to read books that bore me too. 2. Watch English movies with subtitles. This would be my favorite way of learning English. Not only do I get to have a fun time watching the movie, I’d be learning new words at the same time and knowing how to pronounce them! Usually, you can get movies with English subtitles on DVDs. 3. Listen to English songs. Read the lyrics as you listen to the songs. Listen to your favorite songs and sing along to them Actually, turning on the radio or putting on an English Music CD might just be one of the best ways to retain or remember vocabulary and grammar that you hear in the music lyrics . According to BPS Research Digest, as sighted in the May 2008 addition of psychologies  Magazine, the answer to the age old question of learning a language, might lie in a songThe researchers concluded that we find it easier to remember words if theyre set to music, partly because its more emotionally engaging, but also because the words are structured in a way that makes it easier for us to segment the information and store it in our memories. So turn up your speakers or put on your headphones and prepare to learn English with music. In addition, by combining the benefits of music with reading the lyrics simultaneous you will be able to learn English faster. Try it out with Perhaps , Perhaps, Perhaps by cake. The songs I have just said are clear, fun and usually focus on a specific form of grammar. . 4. Start a bloc in English. This is one way for you to practice your writing. Blog on something that you love. If you are a fan of movies, start a blog and write about your favorites movies, your favourite characters, what you think could be improved in the movie, what new movies to expect next year, etc. Besides blogging, try joining online forums, engage in online chatting and more. 5.If you don’t want to maintain a blog, why not write to a pen pal? It’d be even more fun to have a pen pal from a different country! I used to write to other people from the US, Germany, Mexico, and even Yugoslavia. I remember feeling excited when I see letters with foreign stamps on it in my mailbox. If you don’t want to spend too much money on stamps, then get a local pen pal. Perhaps Email will do. 6.Write in your diary/journal in English. This is where you can write anything in it. But if you do write something you wouldn’t want others to read, make sure you hide it somewhere safe! Or try not to write anything offensive at all in case someone does find it. You can also write about neutral stuff like the places you went that day, what you ate, who you met, what you did, etc. 7.Be best friends with a good English dictionary. You can use Oxford, Collins, Cambridge,. Buy a dictionary that you’re comfortable with and USE it at all times. Keep it next to you when you’re reading. I always put my favourite Oxford dictionary by my side when I’m reading. So when I stumble upon a word I don’t know, I don’t have to get up and look around for it. It’s right there by my side. Thus, I have no excuse for not looking the word up! 8.Speak the language whenever you can. Speak it with friends and family. You can also sing along to English songs! Try karaoke! Don’t be shy to try speaking the language. Don’t be afraid that others will tease you. In fact, they’ll admire you for your courage and confidence. I think that is the best way to improve in language skill is to use it!! Even if you have a problem with it, you should still keep on trying! Theres no better way than to practice, just like sports or art or any other skill that one tries to learn. Reading is also excellent, but when you talk to native speakers, it brings confidence and skill! I am also learning a language that is not my own, and I can say truly that the native speakers will usually for the most part help you and be encouraging; almost anyone appreciates a foreigner trying to learn their language. So, just keep trying to practice with people. Go out with friends, start up conversations, try out your grammar, and also listen to the native speakers. Try to mimic their grammar patterns and listen to what context the words are being spoken in. This is something that printed material can not give you. But remember the #1 thing: dont be afraid! You can do it! Dont let anyone tell you that you are not good. It takes time, and just keep trying! If people intimidate you too much, try listening to tapes, I know people that do this and get good results. But nothing will be better than just talking to people who speak english. Dont be afraid to ask the person, Can you explain? or I dont understand; can you repeat it? 9.Learn a new word a day. Keep your own vocabulary notebook and write a new word and its meaning in it every day. Refer to it as often as possible so that the new words will stick in your head. 10.You can also learn new phrases, idioms or proverbs a day. A kick in the teeth, sit on the fence, make a clean sweep, a bird in the hand is worth two in the bush, a man’s home is his castle, etc. When you come across a saying that you like, write it down and its meaning in your notebook! Actually, there are many more ways for you to improve your English. If you have extra money to spend, you can even sign up for English courses, English camps and so on. But why throw away your money when you can learn the language in cheaper waysLearn at your own pace. There’s no need to hurry when learning something especially a language. Make learning English fun. Don’t give up too soon or get discouraged. Don’t get stressed out when it becomes a little difficult.

Thursday, September 5, 2019

Theory Of Career Construction Psychology Essay

Theory Of Career Construction Psychology Essay The purpose of this case study is to apply Savickas Theory of Career Construction to a volunteer client Yelonda J. Complete a narrative interview using the structured interview questions in the Career Style Interview, and employing the six steps. Discuss interpretations, observations and obtain her feedback. The theoretical foundation of Career Construction theory (CCT) has its beginnings from Constructivism, and according to Sharf (2009) Constructivism is a psychological approach that has developed out of a postmodern philosophical position. It has been stated the Postmodernism period was a reaction to modernism, in that it highlighted differences in individual views rather than a one-sided, rational scientific view of modernism. (Sharf 2009) Constructivist saw individuals as creators of their own destiny, and constructivist counselors sought to help clients discover that meaning and resolve any discrepancy. (Sharf 2009) According to (Sharf 2009, p316) the constructivism approach was greatly affected by the changing of the work environments in the 1970s. Employees were no longer staying with one position for their whole work life, as companies were becoming less loyal to employees and watching out for own bottom-line by downsizing their workforce to part-time. Employees soon discovered they needed to take charge of their future and looked to career counselors for help. According to (Busacca, 2007) constructivist career counseling attempts to answer one question how can an individual negotiate a lifetime job changes and not lose a sense of self? Career construction theory (CCT) came about to help individuals develop meaning out of their career choices and actions. CCT address how an individuals career is made from its personal and social constructs. These constructs are not actual real reality, but an individuals representation of that reality. CCT defines career as an objective and subjective construct. Objectively speaking, career is a listing of positions from the past to present. Subjectively, career is the personal meaning or a pattern of experiences form past, present, future. (Savickas, 2005, p43) CCT is made of three distinct perspectives and each seeks to determine how the individual views their life and career working together. (Busacca, 2007) These perspectives also help career counselor see how each individual views, makes adjustments and creates from their life experiences. These perspectives are life theme, career adaptability, and vocational personality. The Purpose and the Suppositions The purpose of CCT is to help the individual discover the subjective meaning in their work. In helping the individual discover this type of meaning, Career construction approach (CCA) stress the importance of the relationship between the individual and the counselor. Life themes In the previous career development theory we covered, Hollands inventories were used to obtain critical information about the individual, and make predictions of a career path and likely hood of success. Career Construction theory takes advantage of individual narrated stories to discover meaning behind the content. (Busacca, 2007) It has been stated pattern is the primary unit of meaning. By consciously organizing and binding together these discrete experiences, a unifying life theme patterns (Savickas 2005, p 58) pattern becomes a fundamental and essential way of being because it provides a way for individuals to see themselves and what is important in the world. (Savickas, 2005 p58) During a session an individual is encouraged to tell of work positions, experiences and develop a story linking career related experiences from the past to the present. The individual becomes the focus of attention as they narrated the counselor through their work and life stories. The counselor plays a less active role and listens for patterns in the individuals stories and life theme should begin to surface. (Busacca, 2007) Career Adaptability Once an individual has discovered a life theme, how they go about coping with the process of connecting with social expectations and how they construct their careers is the next step. (Savickas, 2005) Career counselors begin to ask questions of the individual such as How did you decide on that career? This is an important question to ask, because it relates to how the individual is choosing to cope or react to their social expectations. (Savickas 2005) stated adaptation was the interaction of self and society and it is this interaction where an individual develops their attitudes, beliefs, problem-solving and coping mechanisms. He went on to discuss four stages of adaptation resources. These resources are concern, control, curiosity and confidence. (Savickas, 2005) During the career concern stage, a career counselor focuses on whether an individual was concern about their future. A statement commonly made by individuals in this stage would be Do I have future. A lack of career concern has a likelihood of becoming indifference which usually reflects a feeling of pessimism about the future. Career concern is important because I it helps the individual to relate their current activities to future endeavors. The goal of this stage is the building of continuity of past and future career activities. (Savickas, 2005) (Busacca, 2007) The career control stage, a career counselor focuses on whether the individual feels or believes they are responsible for their careers. A statement commonly made by individuals in this stage would be Who owns my future? The lack of career control has a likelihood of becoming career indecisiveness and can lead to attitudes of indecision. The goal of this stage is deciding by clarifying choices. (Savickas, 2005) (Busacca, 2007) The career curiosity stage, a career counselor focuses on whether the individual discovered fit between self and the world of work. A statement commonly made by individuals in this stage would be What do I want to do with my future? The lack of career curiosity has the likelihood of becoming naÃÆ'Â ¯ve about work options. The goal of this stage is exploration, learning about self and clarifying values. (Savickas, 2005) (Busacca, 2007) The career confidence stage, a career counselor would focuses on whether the individual displayed self esteem, self efficacy and encouragement. A statement commonly made by an individual in this stage would be Can I do it? A lack of career confidence has a likelihood of becoming unmotivated and unwilling to obtain goals. The goal of this stage is increase self acceptance, develop problem solving abilities and encourage the willingness to try even when things look dark. (Busacca, 2007) (Savickas, 2005) Vocational Personality According to (Savickas, 2005) an individuals personality begins in the family, neighborhoods, and school. As that individual grows up, their characteristics are displayed everyday while doing housework, completing hobbies and playing games. CCT views these characteristics possibilities or hypothesis to explore for the discovering meaning. Unlike Hollands RAISEC which use an objective person-environment fit, CCT uses a subjective approach in demonstrating to the individual how they are similar to others in a given field, and share common feelings and ideas about work related activities. Account of Session with Yelonda J. Observations of Yelonda J. Counseling Session with Yelonda J.

Importance of supply chain management

Importance of supply chain management Introduction Supply chain management is a method of moving materials and associated information effectively and efficiently within inter and intra organisations. To get this task done in the desired way, use of e-business applications is essential. Supply chain management includes the coordination of the organisation involved in the supply side activities with the customers who are receiving the products (Chaffeey, 2009, pp 331). Supply chain management starts with identifying the resources and linking them with the processes which commence with the sources of raw materials and continues until the delivery of the items done through the end consumer. A supply chain activity differs from companies to companies but they provide the benefits of specialisation of process and the economy of scale (Trkman et al, 2007). Importance of supply chain management: An improved supply chain adds superior value to the organisations operation which ultimately gives superior value proposition to the end user for which efficient customer response (ECR) is crucial because ECR deals with the demand management which is required for satisfying the demand of customer by quickly and effectively applying product assortment strategies, rapid introduction of the new product and marketing communication by reducing stocks and delivery time (Chaffeey, 2009, pp 335). Elements of supply chain management: The way the knowledge and flow of information is processes and its outcomes received along with protection of intellectual property are important part in a supply chain strategy. Knowledge here is the information that the organisation has accumulated through years of experience and applying them for planning and   implementing strategy. The improvement in the processing technology of computers and advent of softwares like MS outlook, Lotus Notes that have facilitated the arrangement of discrete information in a logical and useful manner, these abilities give rise to the concept of knowledge and information management which is crutial for effectively managing the supply chain. For an organisation which is highly influenced by customer needs and expectations for them knowledge management is of great significance in two main areas that are customer intelligence and new product innovation as during supplying to customers there are multiple touch points in the organisation where customer interacts with it, Therefore the ability of an organisation to reap information about the customers behaviour and choice on this touch points proves to be a critical wealth of information which helps in customer retaining and growing customer value. In contrast with the new product innovation, the knowledge which flows across the suppliers, customers and market factors by sharing it across the supply chain leads to innovation and increased involvement of supplier in the innovation process  Ã‚     Ã‚  Ã‚  (Croom, 2005). Benefits of adopting Electronic Supply Chain Management: The Following improvements can be found by adopting the e-business supply chain management: Cost performance: by improved productivity and lower input prices Customer Service: by providing service quality Process capability: by maintaining consistency in quality Productivity and dependability: by increased control of material flows along the supply chain (Tan, 2001) Supply chain management involves improving the internal processes, but also processes performed in conjunction with suppliers, distributors and customers. It also provides great opportunities to improve product performance and deliver superior value to the customers. As a result supply chain management can dramatically have an impact on the profitability of a company through reducing operational cost and increasing customer satisfaction and so loyalty and revenue (Chaffey, 2009, PP335). Supply Chain Models: The supply chain model from the system viewpoint can be seen as involving the following processes: attaining resources or inputs, transforming the resources/inputs into outputs that is the product/services and lastly delivering the outputs to the end customers. In terms of e-business the supply chain can be optimised to provide better and efficient delivery while minimising the cost. Push and Pull supply chain model: Push supply chain: These involves delivery of product/service to passive customers. The objective of this model is optimising the process while attaining cost effectiveness and efficiency. The features of this model are development of new products, data integration, minimised technology utilisation, longer cycle time and the large inventory. Pull supply chain: This involves value delivering to end customers. This supply chain includes active customers who encourage improved quality and value of products/services. The model emphasise and identifies the requirement of customers by carrying out market research for developing and improving the products. The supply chain focuses on delivering value while reducing cost. Upstream supply chain: Disintermediation: This involves directly buying from the supplier. This results in lesser costs and reduced cycle time. Reintermediation: This involves business to business exchange of the products. Downstream supply chain: Disintermediation: This involves direct selling to customers, while incurring reduced cost of sales and enhanced cycle time. Reintermediation: This involves competition in newer markets by business to business transactions.   Shell chemicals: Shell chemicals is one of the largest petrochemicals producers in the world who supplies the bulk material to the large industries for the manufacturing of industrial and the consumer goods. It is very crucial for such an organisation like shell to have a well planned and controlled Supply chain management. Issues: Prior to the adoption of electronic supply chain management in shell, everything was managed manually that involves lot of time consuming activities. Due to this time consuming process there was a threat that a customer might bear a lack of important ingredient at plant time. Hence to tackle these kind of problem companies maintain safety stocks to avoid shortage, it involves cost to maintain any safety stocks. Supply chain process: SIMON: In 1995 shell has adopted SIMON (Shell Inventory Managed Order Network) system that acts as a Electronic data interchange initially for managing the downstream supply chain. Soon after its success in downstream it was applied to upstream process. SIMON facilitates supplier to get anticipated demand, calculate stock and track shipment status for which customer needs to input three kinds of data, that are current stock level, estimated demand for stock and location, timing and quantity for the shipment details.   Elemica: In the year 2005, shell updated itself by implementing Elemica in its supply chain that was founded by around 22 leaders of the chemical industry. The major benefit to adopt Elemica was standardisation. It offers value to their customers by automation of the processes in the business. For instance the buying and selling of chemicals and then expand the value of that connection by making the new marketing channels and efficiency opportunities by means of our web solutions and supply chain offerings (Elemica, 2010).   Integrated Supply chain: Elemicas revolutionary and new business network completely links the operational base, while eliminating the hurdles of transaction and communication between the processes. Flawless accessibility and transparency of the supply chain provides the power of efficiently carrying out the operations and removing access personnels, assets and inventory. Elimica utilises a standard format in its integrated supply chain structure, which is also favourable for organisations existing in similar industries.   Process: The supply chain Elimica records and maintain inventory and sales forecast on daily basis, that helps in analysing customer satisfaction. This is further collaborated with the ERP system of the Elimica hub (). Global reach and connectivity: Elimicas founders happen to be the most renowned and established leaders in the global industry. This provides an international base for business, that helps in drawing the attention of both buyers and sellers. This phenomenon further builds up an opportunity to develop relations with new customers. Elimica acts as a facilitator for business transactions on this global platform. Security: Elemica has adopted several measures to protect accessibility and data flow. This helps in safeguarding the transactions of customers/participants. Strict data protection measures, encryption technology and transparent firewalls are features of security offered by Elimica. The policies and processes are regularly checked to meet the security standards. Conclusion: After critically evaluating the supply chain management of Shell chemicals, it was found that the benefits of adopting Elemica is seen in the form of improvement in supply chain management that includes reduced cost resulting in cost efficiency, improved quality resulting in customer satisfaction, increased capability of process and increased productivity and dependability. Ultimately these improvements fuelled the profitability of the company. Recommendation: While dealing with the decisions regarding the implementation of e-business in the process of supply chain, companies should look for the strategy that is most appropriate for the unusual processes combined with the blueprint of the operation. It is mainly important for those small organisations which cannot invest huge money at particular time period. Managers should carefully consider coherence between the internet tools to adapt choices in terms of integration with customers and supplies. The internet can support and facilitate information sharing, both in collaborative or in market-type relationships, or can be used to support closer integration (system coupling) with the partners (Cagliano et al, 2005). Prior to a client switching to a new SCM system there should be adequate testing to see if the system meets the clients requirements. When a standard supply chain template is modified to suit a customers requirements, particular care should be used in the implementation and provider firms should be very insistent that client forms follow the providers implementation methodology (Sridharan et al, 2005 ). Reference: Croom, S.R (2005), The impact of e-business on supply chain management, International journal of operations and production management, Vol. 25 No. 1, pp. 55-73. Chaffey, D (2009) Supply chain management E-business and E-commerce management. Harlow. Prentice Hall,PP 331 Chaffey, D (2009) Supply chain management E-business and E-commerce management. Harlow. Prentice Hall,PP 335 Cagliano, R., Caniato, F. and Spina, G. (2005) How companies are sharing their supply chain through the internet International Journal of operations and production management, Vol15 No.12, pp1309-1327. Elemica (2010) Supply chain [Online]. Available from: Accessed on [15/03/2010]. Sridharan, U.V., Caines, W.R., Patterson,C.C (2005), Implementation of supply chain management and its impact on the value of firms, Supply chain management: An International Journal, Vol10 No. 4, PP 313-318. Trkman, P Stemberger, M.I Jaklic, J and Groznic, A (2007) Process approach to supply chain integration, Supply chain management: An International Journal, Vol12 No.2, pp 116-128. Tan, K.C. (2001), A framework of supply chain management literature, European Journal of Purchasing and Supply Management, Vol. 7 No. 1, pp. 39-48.